I just got a new iPhone but because my old one died I lost all my photos in the cloud and am having trouble retrieving them from the cloud onto this phone how do I retrieve them to this phone
If you had iCloud Photos turned on in the old phone, you can turn on iCloud Photos in the new phone (using the same Apple ID) and they will sync to it. If you are uncertain about whether it was turned on, you can use any internet browser and log into www.icloud.com and go to the Photos app there. Also see: Set up and use iCloud Photos - Apple Support
If you didn't have iCloud Photos turned on but do have an iCloud backup, you can use the backup to setup the new phone (not just the photos) from iCloud but you cannot otherwise view the contents of the backup. Restore or set up your device from an iCloud backup - Apple Support
Well if you lost all the photos on the icloud how do you expect to get it back on your new phone?
And how do you know it is lost?